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Table 1 Characteristics of AMD Clinical Subtypes (based on AREDS)

From: AMD and the alternative complement pathway: genetics and functional implications

   AMD Subtype
  Early Intermediate Advanced Dry/Geographic Atrophy Advanced Neovascular/Exudative/Wet
Clinical Features Drusen Few small (<63 μm) or medium sized (63–124 μm) Numerous medium (63–124 μm) + at least 1 large (>125 μm) sized Extensive medium (63–124 μm) + large (>125 μm) sized Extensive medium (63–124 μm) + large (>125 μm) sized
Bruch’s membrane Thickening Thickening Thickening Thickening
Retinal pigment epithelium Pigmentary abnormalities Pigmentary abnormalities; atrophy excluding fovea Atrophy including fovea/macula Detachment
Choroid/choriocapillaris Decreased vascular density Decreased vascular density Atrophy Choroidal neovascularization; hemorrhage; leak fluid
Neural retina None Photoreceptor thinning above drusen Photoreceptor cell death Photoreceptor detachment and cell death
Impairment/outcome Mild visual impairment (blurred vision or decreased contrast sensitivity) or asymptomatic Mild visual impairment (blurred spots in central vision or decreased contrast sensitivity) or asymptomatic Blurred central vision; gradual vision loss Sudden/profound vision loss