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Table 8 Students’ awareness and opinion regarding the ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI)

From: Perceptions of students in health and molecular life sciences regarding pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine

  Total Faculty of Pharmacy Faculty of Medicine Genetics and Bioengineering Faculty of Health Studies Non- ML&HS p*
Ethical
 Are you aware of the different ethical aspects of genetic testing?
  Yes 244 (45)a 90 (54) 50 (36) 28 (43) 17 (27) 26 (30) < 0.01
  No 155 (29) 32 (19) 60 (43) 22 (34) 32 (50) 33 (38)
  Not sure 139 (26) 44 (27) 30 (21) 15 (23) 15 (23) 27 (32)
 Total 538 166 140 65 64 86
 What ethical issues do you believe might be related to genetic or PG testing?
  Patient privacy 237 (46) 88 (40) 63 (34) 29 (38) 30 (41) 27 (29) < 0.01
  Data confidentiality 91 (18) 82 (37) 56 (30) 14 (18) 13 (18) 8 (8)
  Racial issues 27 (5) 10 (5) 4 (3) 2 (3) 12 (17) 9 (10)
  Stigma 20 (4) 7(3) 17 (9) 3 (3)
  Incidental findings 47 (9) 21 (9) 21 (11) 9 (12) 9 (12) 8 (8)
  Other 93 (18) 14 (6) 24 (13) 21 (28) 9 (12) 39 (42)
 Total 515 222 185 75 73 94
Legal
 Are you worried about the possibility that the results of a PG test may be passed to unauthorized persons?
  Worried 238 (44) 71 (43) 69 (44) 30 (46) 24 (37) 44 (51) 1.0
  Not worried 190 (35) 65 (39) 60 (38) 24 (36) 21 (33) 20 (23)
  No opinion 112 (21) 30 (18) 29 (18) 12 (18) 19 (30) 22 (26)
 Total 540 166 158 66 64 86
 In case unfavorable test results should be disclosed, do you believe that you would be disadvantaged at work or job seeking?
  Yes 165 (31) 45 (27) 49 (31) 26 (39) 21 (35) 24 (28) 0.400
  No 219 (41) 86 (51) 71 (45) 17 (26) 15 (25) 30 (35)
  Not sure 152 (28) 38 (22) 38 (24) 23 (35) 24 (40) 32 (37)
 Total 536 169 158 66 60 86
Social
 In case of an unfavorable test result, do you believe you would feel “helpless” or “pessimistic”?
  Yes 174 (33) 63 (38) 40 (25) 26 (39) 18 (29) 27 (32) 0.170
  No 265 (49) 69 (42) 93 (58) 35 (53) 32 (52) 36 (42)
  Not sure 98 (18) 34 (20) 25 (16) 5 (8) 12 (19) 22 (26)
 Total 537 166 158 66 62 85
 In case of an unfavorable test result, do you believe you would feel “different” or “inadequate”?
  Yes 152 (28) 51 (31) 32 (20) 25 (38) 19 (31) 25 (30) 0.100
  No 268 (50) 84 (50) 95 (60) 32 (48) 27 (44) 30 (36)
  Not sure 115 (22) 31 (19) 31 (20) 9 (14) 15 (25) 29 (34)
 Total 535 166 158 66 61 84
  1. ML&HS, Molecular Life and Health Science
  2. *Chi-square test, Bonferroni-adjusted p values
  3. aPercentage (%)