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Table 1 Articles included as eligible for data abstraction, ordered by year of publication and first author. For each study, main features, genes/loci examined and summary of the main findings are reported

From: Genetic variants of the human host influencing the coronavirus-associated phenotypes (SARS, MERS and COVID-19): rapid systematic review and field synopsis

Author, year Population description Country Disease Primary outcome Other outcomes Sample N Cases N Controls N Notes on cohorts Gene/locus Conclusions Ref.
Lin M, 2003 SARS cases admitted to Taipei Hospital, Taiwan Taiwan SARS Manifest disease Severity 134 33 101   HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 HLA-B*4601 nominally associated with severity (vs larger control group), not with infection after P correction [28]
Chiu RWK, 2004 SARS patients admitted at Hong Kong Chinese University Hospital Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity 496 168 328   ACE2 Negative results [29]
Itoyama S, 2004 Vietnamese patients with SARS Vietnam SARS Manifest disease Hypoxemia 147 44 103 # ACE ACE nominally associated with severity [30]
Ng MHL, 2004 SARS patients admitted at Hong Kong Chinese University Hospital Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity 18864 90 18774   HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR, HLA-DQ HLA-B*0703 and -B*0301 nominally associated with the disease; no association with severity [31]
Chan KC, 2005 SARS patients previously admitted at Hong Kong Hospitals Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity 466 140 326   ACE Negative results [32]
Hamano E, 2005 SARS patients Vietnam SARS Manifest disease Severity (oxygen therapy) 147 44 103   OAS-1, MxA, PKR Nominal association of OAS-1 with disease but not severity; nominal association of MxA with severity only [33]
Ip WK, 2005 SARS patients previously admitted at 5 Hong Kong Hospitals Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Serum MBL level; severity (death) 1757 569 1188   MBL Association of -221 Y allele with disease and MBL level; no association with mortality [34]
Itoyama S, 2005 Vietnamese patients with SARS Vietnam SARS Manifest disease   147 44 103 # ACE2 Negative results [35]
Yuan FF, 2005 SARS patients admitted at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity (ICU or death) 380 180 200 § FcγRIIA, MBL No association with MBL; FcγRIIA nominally associated with severity [36]
Zhang H, 2005 SARS patients from Bejing, China China SARS Manifest disease Serum MBL level 744 352 392   MBL Association of nt 54 B allele with disease and MBL level [37]
Chan VS, 2006 SARS patients admitted at four hospitals in Hong Kong Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease   1127 285 842 $ CLEC4M (L-SIGN) CLEC4M nominally associated with homozigosity (protective).
Functional analysis consistent with genetic risk.
[38]
Chong WP, 2006 SARS cases retrospecivelly selected in Hong Kong and Bejing, China Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity (death) 925 476 449   IFN-γ, IL-10, TNF-α No association with IL-10 and TNFalfa; IFNγ nominally associated with disease, not associated with severity [39]
He J, 2006 SARS patients from Bejing, China China SARS Manifest disease   66 66 64 Cohort assessed for risk factors OAS-1, MxA Nominal association of OAS-1 and MxA with disease.
For both variants association found in dominant model only.
[40]
Chen WJ, 2006 SARS cases retrospecivelly selected from the National Taiwan database Taiwan SARS Positive NPS Manifest disease 188 94 94   ACE2, ACP5, ADAR, AIP, ANPEP, B2M, CAT, CCL5/RANTES, CD209, CIITA, CXCL9, CXCL10, CYP17A1, EIF2AK3, EIF2S1, EIF4G1, ESR1, FGL2, FN1, G6PD, GNB3, GPX1, GSS, HMOX1, IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNG, IFNGR1, IFNGR2, IL1A, IL1B, IL1RN, IL4, IL6, IL10, IL10RB, IL12A, IL15, IL18, IRF1, IRF3, IRF7, MBL2, MX1, NFRKB, OAS1, PRDX2, PRKRA, PTGS2, RelB, RFX5, RNASEL, SERPINB3, SH2DIA, SLAMF1, SOCS1, SOCS3, SOD1, TBF, TFRC, TGFB1, TLR3, TLR4, TRAF6, WSX1 Nominal association of detectable NPS with 4 genes (IL1A, IL18, FGL2, RelB) in the patients’ cohort; no association with infection in the case-control study [41]
Chen YM, 2006 Employees of the Municipal Hoping Hospital, Taipei Taiwan SARS Seropositivity   100 20 80   HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw, HLA-DQB1, HLA-DRB1 HLA-Cw0801 nominally associated with SARS infection [42]
Chan KYK, 2007 SARS patients previously admitted at 6 Hong Kong Hospitals Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease LDH level, WBC 1723 817 906 $ ICAM3, FCER2, CD209 (DC-SIGN), CLEC4M (L-SIGN) ICAM3 possibly associated with severity, via LDH level as a proxy [43]
Ng MW, 2007 SARS cases retrospectively selected in Hong Kong and Bejing, China Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity (ICU or death) 1073 495 578   CCL5/RANTES, IP-10, Mig No association with IL-10 and Mig; CCL5/RANTES -28C > G is associated with disease (discovery cohort only) and severity (both discovery and validation cohorts). Association between CCL5/RANTES and severity was validated in an independent cohort of Chinese patients [44]
Yuan FF, 2007 SARS patients admitted at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity (ICU) 350 152 198 § TLR2, TLR4, CD14 No informative variant in TLR2 and TLR4; CD14 nominally associated with severity [45]
Li H, 2008 SARS patients retrospectively collected Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity (ICU or death) 353 181 172   FCER2, CLEC4G, CD209, CLEC4M (L-SIGN) Negative results (4 genes in the C-type lectin genes cluster, chr. 19). [46]
Wang S, 2008 SARS patients admitted at Tianjin Hospital, China China SARS Manifest disease Interstitial lung fibrosis; femoral head necrosis 208 75 133   TNF-α No association with infection and interstitial lung fibrosis; nominal association with femoral head necrosis [47]
Xiong P, 2008 SARS patients from Guangdong province, China China SARS Manifest disease Severity 498 95 403   HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DRB1 Negative results [48]
Keicho N, 2009 Vietnamese patients with SARS Vietnam SARS Manifest disease Seropositivity 145 44 101 # HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 HLA-DRB1*12 possibly associated with disease [49]
Wang Y, 2009 SARS patients from Bejing and Guangzhou, China China SARS Manifest disease   899 376 523   MASP2 Negative results (MASP is a downstream protein of MBL). [50]
Chan KYK, 2010 SARS patients previously admitted at Hong Kong Hospitals Hong Kong SARS LDH level   681 681 n/a $ CD209 (DC-SIGN); combined CD209 and ICAM3 CD209 and CD209 + ICAM3 possibly associated with severity, via LDH level as proxy [51]
Ching JCY, 2010 SARS patients previously admitted at 6 Hong Kong Hospitals Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity (assisted ventilation and other not reported measures) 1210 792 418 $ MxA Nominal association of MxA with disease, not with severity; OAS-1 + MxA dyplotype also analysed [52]
Ng MH, 2010 SARS patients recruited from the Hong Kong Department of Health database Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease   210 102 108 Controls were contact of patients; families also enrolled HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-Cw, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR Negative results: nominal association with disease (increase in DRB4*01010101 frequency, decrease in HLA-B*1502 and HLA-DRB3*030101 frequency in patients) not surviving to correction.
Replication of previous study failed. Analysis of family data was done.
[53]
Wang SF, 2011 Affected health care workers followed-up at the Dept. of Health, Taipei Taiwan SARS Manifest disease Prolonged neutralising antibody expression 97 56 41   HLA-B, HLA-Cw, HLA-DR HLA-Cw1502 and DR0301 possibly associated with resistance to SARS infection [54]
Yuan FF, 2014 SARS patients admitted at Hong Kong Chinese University Hospital Hong Kong SARS Manifest disease Severity 18950 176 18774 48 cases classified as severe HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-DR Negative results [55]
Hajeer AH, 2016 Patients with laboratory-confirmed MERS-CoV infection admitted at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh Saudi Arabia MERS Manifest disease Severity 184 23 161   HLA-DRB1, HLA-DQB1 HLA-DRB1*11:01 nominally associated with severe MERS [56]
Kuo CL, 2020 COVID-19 patients from the UN Biobank   COVID-19 COVID-19 positivity status   323570 622 322948 General population as control APOE APOE ε4 homozygous genotype associated, independent of preexisting dementia [57]
Wang W, 2020 Donors of convalescent plasma who recovered from COVID-19 in Zhejiang, China China COVID-19 Manifest disease   3630 82 3548 No severe case; 242 controls for HLA-DP1 locus HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, HLA-DQ, HLA-DR, HLA-DP HLA haplotype C*07:29 and B*15:27 nominally associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection [58]
Zhang Y, 2020 Patients with COVID-19 admitted to Beijing Youan Hospital, China China COVID-19 Disease severity   80 80   24 severe cases vs 56 mild IFITM3 Association with severity [59]
  1. Notes and legend: gene and polymorphism names were reported as described in articles; the dbSNP nomenclature was added in brackets; statistics was reported if the significant association was found, not significant was annotated otherwise.
  2. ICU intensive care unit, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, WBC white blood counts, LR logistic regression, ns not significant, n/r not reported, n/a not applicable, #: Same cohort used by Itoyama S 2004, 2005, Keicho N 2009; § Same cohort used by Yuan FF 2005, 2007; $: Same cohort used by Chan VS 2006, Chan KYK 2007, 2010, Ching JCY 2010.