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Table 1 An overview of some pharmacogenetic implementation initiatives and institutes involved

From: Translating pharmacogenomics into clinical decisions: do not let the perfect be the enemy of the good

Project Goals References
ACCOuNT (African American Pharmacogenomic Consortium Network) Move studies of African American pharmacogenomics from discovery to implementation; guidance for developing genomic prescribing system; developing recommendations that consider ethnic background [3]
CLIPMERGE PGx Develop best-practice infrastructure for PGx implementation; real-time clinical decision support (CDS); the utility of genomic information in optimizing medication efficacy and safety [4]
eMERGE-PGx (Electronic Medical Records and Genomics) Integration of clinically validated genotypes to EHR and CDS; measuring outcomes and cost-effectiveness; repository of variants of unknown significance for the expansion of PGx understanding [5]
Go-PGx (Genomic and outcomes database for pharmacogenomics and implementation studies) Genomics-based precision health strategies to reduce the most common and serious ADRs; incorporate tests into clinical practice; study barriers; economic implications of testing in clinical practice [6]
IGNITE (Implementing GeNomics In practice) Evaluate the feasibility of incorporating genomic information into clinical care; define, share and disseminate the best practices of implementation; contribute to the evidence base of outcomes of the use of genomic information in clinical practice [7]
INGENIOUS (INdiana GENomics Implementation: an Opportunity for the UnderServed) Evaluate adverse event incidence and annual healthcare cost, integration of results through the EHR and clinical decision support system [8]
Personalized Medication Program Incorporate genetics into the medical decision-making process; develop the implementation tools needed to incorporate pharmacogenomics into the clinical workflow; implement clinical decision support system to guide test ordering and PGx recommendations at the point of care [9]
Personalized Medicine Program Expand and evaluate the clinical implementation of PGx information; identification of the common challenges; educational programs targeted at health science students [10]
PG4KDS Establish processes for using PGx tests in the EHR to pre-emptively guide prescription; develop interruptive CDS alerts; educational efforts for both patients and clinicians [11]
PGRN (Pharmacogenomics Research Network) translation PGx program Assessment of the implementation of routine evidence-based PGx testing; templates for reporting results with CDS; educational materials for clinicians; gene–drug pair clinical guidelines [12]
PREDICT (The Pharmacogenomics Resource for Enhanced Decisions in Care and Treatment) Develop infrastructure and a framework for incorporating PGx results into the EHR and making these available to clinicians at the time of prescription [13]
RIGHT (Right drug, right dose, right time) Develop best practice protocol for implementing genetic sequence data; point-of-care CDS [14]
SEAPharm (South East Asian Pharmacogenomics Research Network) Studies of adverse drug effects and developing guidelines adapted for the Asian population [15]
The 1200 Patients Project Establish a model system for eliminating practical barriers to implementing PGx; Interactive consultation portal for physicians; Clinical relevance of PGx and cost [16]
U-PGx (Ubiquitous Pharmacogenomics) Implement PGx through a pre-emptive panel strategy; studies of the impact on patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness; exploratory analysis to understand PGx [17]