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Table 1 All of the genes which have been involved in ASD progression in Middle East population

From: Genetic and molecular biology of autism spectrum disorder among Middle East population: a review

Study Year Gene Country Population Results
Receptors and neurotransmitters
 Firouzabadi et al. [17] 2017 DRD3 Iran 56 patients
controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with response to risperidone in autism patients.
 Noroozi et al. [18] 2016 GRM7 Iran 518 patients
472 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Elhawary et al. [19] 2019 HTR2A
HTR2C
SLC6A4
BDNF
Saudi Arabia 110 patients
102 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
HTR2C and BDNF polymorphisms were correlated with severity.
 Sener et al. [20] 2016 CC2D1A
HTR1A
Turkey 44 patients
27 controls
Expression was associated with ASD patients.
 Hamza et al. [21] 2016 GABRB3 Iraq 40 patients
25 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
 Hosseinpour et al. [22] 2017 NRP2 Iran 50 patients
70 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Yuksel et al. [23] 2016 OXTR Turkey 27 patients
39 controls
OXTR promoter methylation was associated with ASD patients.
 Ocakoğlu et al. [24] 2018 OXTR Turkey 100 patients Polymorphisms were correlated with severity of autism spectrum disorder.
 Salem et al. [25] 2013 MAOB Egypt 53 patients
30 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
Synaptic/neuronal activity
 Noroozi et al. [26] 2018 CYFIP1/2 Iran 30 patients
41 controls
Expression was associated with ASD patients.
 Safari et al. [27] 2017 SNAP25 Iran 472 patients
524 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Zare et al. [28] 2017 CNTNAP2 Iran 200 patients
260 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Firouzabadi et al. [29] 2016 ACE Iran 120 patients
120 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Ghafouri-Fard et al. [30] 2020 BDNF, BACE1
BDNF-AS
BACE1- AS
Iran 50 patients
50 controls
Expression was associated with ASD. BACE1-AS and BDNF expression were correlated with age in female participants.
Inflammatory factors
 Eftekharian et al. [31] 2018 TNF-α, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-2 Iran 30 patients
41 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with autism.
 Fallah et al. [32] 2020 IFNG
IFNG-AS1
Iran 50 patients
50 controls
Expression was associated with ASD patients.
 Safari et al. [33] 2020 HOTAIR Iran 427 patients
430 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Safari et al. [34] 2017 FOXP3 Iran 523 patients
472 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Mostafa et al. [35] 2012 HLA-DRB1 Egypt 100 patients
100 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
Amino acid metabolism
 Ajabi et al. [36] 2017 MTRR Iran 142 patients
214 controls
Polymorphism was correlated with risk of autism.
 Haghiri et al. [37] 2016 MTR Iran 108 patients
130 controls
Polymorphism was correlated with increased risk of autism.
 Jabbar et al. [38] 2018 MTR Iraq 70 patients
30 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
 Behiry [39] 2017 CBS Egypt 40 patients
40 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with ASD.
 Taheri et al. [40] 2019 MOCOS Iran 406 patients
411 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
Nuclear receptors and GTPases
 Mobasheri et al. [41] 2019 VDR Iran 81 patients
108 controls
Polymorphism was correlated with reduced risk of autism.
 Coskun et al. [42] 2016 VDR Turkey 237 patients
243 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with ASD.
 Sayad et al. [43] 2017 RORA Iran 518 patients
472 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with autism risk in dominant inheritance model.
 Emamalizadeh et al. [44] 2017 RIT2 Iran 470 patients
470 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Hamedani et al. [45] 2017 RIT2 Iran 532 patients
472 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
Transporters
 Noroozi et al .[46] 2017 VMAT1 Iran 495 patients
484 controls
Polymorphism was correlated with autism.
 Kamal et al .[47] 2015 DRD4 Egypt 178 patients
128 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with ASD.
 Azzam et al. [48] 2018 SLC6A3
DRD1
Egypt 50 patients
50 controls
SLC6A3 polymorphisms were correlated with mother’s age. DRD1 polymorphisms were correlated with age in ASD.
 El-Tarras et al. [49] 2012 SLC6A3
DRD1
Saudi Arabia 50 patients
50 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
Transcriptional and epigenetic regulation
 Meguid [50] 2015 MTHFR Egypt 24 patients and 20 of their mothers.
30 control and 42 healthy control mothers.
MTHFR polymorphisms were correlated with ASD and higher in autism children mothers.
 El-Baz et al. [51] 2017 MTHFR Egypt 31 patients
39 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
 Shawky et al. [52] 2014 MTHFR Egypt 20 patients
20 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
 Arab and Elhawary [53] 2019 MTHFR Saudi Arabia 112 patients
104 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
 Muftin et al. [54] 2020 MTHFR Iraq 38 patients
22 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with sex in ASD.
 Beiranvandi et al. [55] 2020 EN2 Iran 67 patients
100 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with the risk of ASD.
 Eftekharian et al. [56] 2018 PIAS Iran 30 patients
41 controls
Expression was associated with age in ASD patients.
DNA repair
 Dasdemir et al. [57] 2016 XRCC4 Turkey 100 patients
96 controls
Polymorphisms were correlated with ASD.